Identify useful variables and assemble metadata

Subtask Description:
Description of ESE (Ecological – Social – Economic) linkages.

Action points of the implementation:

Himmerfjärden , Sweden

Policy Issue:
Eutrophication status and reduction.

Human Activities:
Urban sewage discharge, agriculture and industrial activity, tourism.

General Information:
Nutrient loading has caused increased turbidity, loss of biodiversity (including submerged aquatic vegetation), deep water oxygen deficiency, phytoplankton blooms and biodiversity loss. The main stakeholder concerns are connected with tourism, recreational activities and nature enjoyment, and the sustainable implementation of WFD that poses economic challenges for several activities in the area.

Example of Implementation:

Policy options –link between policy decision and ecological, economic and social impacts
The study approach is based on the policy options in the “scenario section” which constitutes a separate section in the modelling software. Three databases contain data on options to reduce nitrogen loadings and costs for undertaking those measures. At present there are some data stored in the databases that are not used for simulation, for example, data on affected stakeholder groups. Later on it might be possible to analyze distributional effects of costs by using these data. The crucial input from the databases into the temporary marine model is nitrogen reductions.

Temporary marine model –link between ecological model and economic model
A preliminary estimation of the linkage between nitrogen loadings / nitrogen reductions and Secchi depth has been used in the current model. Secchi depth is an indicator of ecological conditions and is also assumed to affect human well-being. This is the crucial link to connect the ecological system to the social and economic system. It will be further developed in the appraisal step.

Participation function – link between policy design, stakeholder behaviour, costs and nutrient reduction
The probability of participating is assumed to be determined by several variables. This probability will result in an approximate numbers of hectares of wetland to be created, depending on the levels of the variables. The extension of the wetland area (in hectares) will then make the link to the ecology and nutrient reduction, by template estimates of how many kg N wetlands retain yearly per hectare. The extension of the wetland area created will also result in costs for the wetland policy option.

Value of increased Secchi depth – linking improvement of ecological standards to economic indicators
As explained above Secchi depth is not only an indicator of ecological conditions but is also assumed to affect human well-being. This effect can be attained as a monetary value by assessing it as a change in consumer surplus.

Additional visitors - linking improvement of ecological standards to change in recreational demand
Secchi depth is also assumed to affect people’s recreational behaviour in the choice of site, i.e. the demand for recreation. A secchi depth improvement might also imply an increased number of visitors to the site which may, in turn, have various economic and social effects in the region.

This example provides a short, understandable explanation of the linkages between the different components of the Himmerfjärden model that can be used to provide information to stakeholders and other people with interest to the SAF implementation in the area.

Contact: Jakob Walve, .